NARATIVE REVIEW: PROFIL FITOKIMIA DAN POTENSI FARMAKOLOGI Citrus limon

Shaum Shiyan, Galih Pratiwi, Ayu Ratna Sari, Ulik Alta

Abstract


Latar Belakang: Jeruk lemon banyak digunakan sebagai bahan makanan atau mimuan, obat-obatan, kosmetik, deterjen dan aromaterapi. Lemon kaya dengan kandungan senyawa yang berpotensi dapat digunakan sebagai alternatif pengobatan, diantaranya adalah  glikosida flavonoid, kumarin, β dan ɤ-sitosterol, dan senyawa volatil. Tujuan: Untuk membahas profil fitokimia dan potensi farmakologi lemon. Metode: Informasi dalam penulisan artikel diperoleh dari berbagai database seperti science direct, google scholar dan pubmed. Pembahasan: Analisis fitokimia lemon sudah banyak dilakukan dengan berbagai macam metode, sehingga dapat diketahui kandungan dari lemon yang memiliki efek farmakologi, seperti antibakteri, antivirus, antioksidan dan bahkan sudah mulai dikembangkan sebagai antikanker. Kesimpulan: Lemon kaya akan senyawa aktif dan sudah terbukti efektif untuk pengobatan berbagai penyakit, sehingga sangat potensial untuk dikembangkan menjadi sediaan farmasi.

 

Kata Kunci: Citrus limon, Lemon, Aktivitas Farmakologi


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References


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Amorim, J.L., Simas, D.L.R., Pinheiro, M.M.G., Moreno, D.S.A., Alviano, C.S., da Silva, A.J.R., dkk. (2016_. Anti-Inflammatory Properties and Chemical Characterization of the Essential Oils of Four Citrus Species. Plos One, 11: e0153643.

Anese, M., Bot, F., Panozzo, A., Mirolo, G., dan Lippe, G. (2015). Effect of ultrasound treatment, oil addition and storage time on lycopene stability and in vitro bioaccessibility of tomato pulp. Food Chemistry, 172: 685–691.

Anjum, S., Priya, V., dan Rengasami, G. (2018). Comparative phytochemical analysis and total phenolic content in citrus fruit peel (Citrus sinensis and Citrus limon). Intertional Journal of Reserch in Pharmaceutical Science, 9: 4.

Ávila, F., Jiménez-Aspee, F., Cruz, N., Gómez, C., González, M.A., dan Ravello, N. (2019). Additive effect of maqui (Aristotelia chilensis) and lemon (Citrus x limon) juice in the postprandial glycemic responses after the intake of high glycemic index meals in healthy men. NFS Journal, 17: 8–16.

Azam, M., Song, M., Fan, F., Zhang, B., Xu, Y., Xu, C., dkk. (2013). Comparative Analysis of Flower Volatiles from Nine Citrus at Three Blooming Stages. International Journal of Molecular Sciences, 14: 22346–22367.

Baba, E., Acar, Ü., Öntaş, C., Kesbiç, O.S., dan Yılmaz, S. (2016). Evaluation of Citrus limon peels essential oil on growth performance, immune response of Mozambique tilapia Oreochromis mossambicus challenged with Edwardsiella tarda. Aquaculture, 465: 13–18.

Ben Hsouna, A., Ben Halima, N., Smaoui, S., dan Hamdi, N. (2017). Citrus lemon essential oil: chemical composition, antioxidant and antimicrobial activities with its preservative effect against Listeria monocytogenes inoculated in minced beef meat. Lipids in Health and Disease, 16: 146

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Himed, L., Merniz, S., Monteagudo-Olivan, R., Barkat, M., dan Coronas, J. (2019). Antioxidant Activity of The Essential Oil of Citrus limon Before and After Its Encapsulation in Amorphous SiO2. Scientific African, 6: e00181

Ju, S., Mu, J., Dokland, T., Zhuang, X., Wang, Q., Jiang, H., dkk. (2013). Grape Exosome-like Nanoparticles Induce Intestinal Stem Cells and Protect Mice From DSS-Induced Colitis. Molecular Therapy, 21: 1345–1357

Kamal, G.M., *Anwar, F., Hussain, A.I., Sarri, N., dan Ashraf, M.Y. (2011). Yield and Chemical Composition of Citrus Essential Oils as Affected by Drying Pretreatment of Peels. International Food Research Journal, 18: 1

Kanmani, P. (2014). Extraction and Analysis of Pectin from Citrus Peels: Augmenting The Yield from Citrus limon Using Statistical Experimental Design. Iranica Journal of energy and environment, 5: 1

Kaya, M., Sousa, A.G., Crépeau, M.-J., Sørensen, S.O., dan Ralet, M.-C. (2014). Characterization of Citrus Pectin Samples Extracted Under Different Conditions: Influence of Acid Type and pH of Extraction. Annals of Botany, 114: 1319–1326

Kim, J., Jayaprakasha, G.K., Uckoo, R.M., dan Patil, B.S. (2012). Evaluation of Chemopreventive and Cytotoxic Effect of Lemon Seed Extracts on Human Breast Cancer (MCF-7) Cells. Food and Chemical Toxicology, 50: 423–430

Klimek-Szczykutowicz, Szopa, dan Ekiert. (2020). Citrus limon (Lemon) Phenomenon—A Review of the Chemistry, Pharmacological Properties, Applications in the Modern Pharmaceutical, Food, and Cosmetics Industries, and Biotechnological Studies. Plants, 9: 119

Liu, Y., Zhang, X., Wang, Y., Chen, F., Yu, Z., Wang, L., dkk. (2014). Erratum to: Effect of Citrus lemon Oil on Growth and Adherence of Streptococcus Mutans. World Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology, 30: 1435–1435

Lota, M.-L., de Rocca Serra, D., Tomi, F., Jacquemond, C., dan Casanova, J. (2002). Volatile Components of Peel and Leaf Oils of Lemon and Lime Species. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 50: 796–805

Mahmoud, M.F., Gamal, S., dan El-Fayoumi, H.M. (2014). Limonin Attenuates Hepatocellular Injury Following Liver Ischemia and Reperfusion in Rats Via Toll-like Receptor Dependent Pathway. European Journal of Pharmacology, 740: 676–682

Makni, M., Jemai, R., Kriaa, W., Chtourou, Y., dan Fetoui, H. (2018). Citrus limon from Tunisia: Phytochemical and Physicochemical Properties and Biological Activities. BioMed Research International, 2018: 1–10

Malacrida, C.R., Kimura, M., dan Jorge, N. (2012). Phytochemicals and Antioxidant Activity of Citrus Seed Oils. Food Science and Technology Research, 18: 399–404

Manca, M.L., Castangia, I., Zaru, M., Nácher, A., Valenti, D., Fernàndez-Busquets, X., dkk. (2015). Development of Curcumin Loaded Sodium hyaluronate Immobilized Vesicles (Hyalurosomes) and Their Potential on Skin Inflammation and Wound Restoring. Biomaterials, 71: 100–109

Manconi, M., Manca, M.L., Marongiu, F., Caddeo, C., Castangia, I., Petretto, G.L., dkk., (2016). Chemical Characterization of Citrus limon var. Pompia and Incorporation in Phospholipid Vesicles for Skin Delivery. International Journal of Pharmaceutics, 506: 449–457

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Mathew, B.B., Jatawa, S.K., dan Tiwari, A. (2012). Phytochemical Analysis of Citrus limonum Pulp and Peel. International Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, 4: 4

Matsumoto, T., Koike, M., Arai, C., Kitagawa, T., Inoue, E., Imahori, D., dkk. (2018). Chemical Structures and Antimutagenic Effects of Unusual Oximes from The Peels of Citrus limon. Phytochemistry Letters, 25: 118–121

Minami, M., Kita, M., Nakaya, T., Yamamoto, T., Kuriyama, H., dan Imanishi, J. (2003). The Inhibitory Effect of Essential Oils on Herpes Simplex Virus Type-1 Replication In Vitro. Microbiology and Immunology, 47: 681–684

Mustafa, N. (2015). Citrus Essential Oils: Current and Prospective Uses in the Food Industry. Recent Patents on Food, Nutrition & Agriculture, 7: 115–127

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Otang, W.M. dan Afolayan, A.J. (2016). Antimicrobial and Antioxidant Efficacy of Citrus limon L. peel Extracts Used for Skin Diseases by Xhosa tribe of Amathole District, Eastern Cape, South Africa. South African Journal of Botany, 102: 46–49

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Amorim, J.L., Simas, D.L.R., Pinheiro, M.M.G., Moreno, D.S.A., Alviano, C.S., da Silva, A.J.R., dkk. (2016_. Anti-Inflammatory Properties and Chemical Characterization of the Essential Oils of Four Citrus Species. Plos One, 11: e0153643.

Anese, M., Bot, F., Panozzo, A., Mirolo, G., dan Lippe, G. (2015). Effect of ultrasound treatment, oil addition and storage time on lycopene stability and in vitro bioaccessibility of tomato pulp. Food Chemistry, 172: 685–691.

Anjum, S., Priya, V., dan Rengasami, G. (2018). Comparative phytochemical analysis and total phenolic content in citrus fruit peel (Citrus sinensis and Citrus limon). Intertional Journal of Reserch in Pharmaceutical Science, 9: 4.

Ávila, F., Jiménez-Aspee, F., Cruz, N., Gómez, C., González, M.A., dan Ravello, N. (2019). Additive effect of maqui (Aristotelia chilensis) and lemon (Citrus x limon) juice in the postprandial glycemic responses after the intake of high glycemic index meals in healthy men. NFS Journal, 17: 8–16.

Azam, M., Song, M., Fan, F., Zhang, B., Xu, Y., Xu, C., dkk. (2013). Comparative Analysis of Flower Volatiles from Nine Citrus at Three Blooming Stages. International Journal of Molecular Sciences, 14: 22346–22367.

Baba, E., Acar, Ü., Öntaş, C., Kesbiç, O.S., dan Yılmaz, S. (2016). Evaluation of Citrus limon peels essential oil on growth performance, immune response of Mozambique tilapia Oreochromis mossambicus challenged with Edwardsiella tarda. Aquaculture, 465: 13–18.

Ben Hsouna, A., Ben Halima, N., Smaoui, S., dan Hamdi, N. (2017). Citrus lemon essential oil: chemical composition, antioxidant and antimicrobial activities with its preservative effect against Listeria monocytogenes inoculated in minced beef meat. Lipids in Health and Disease, 16: 146

Bhatia, H., Pal Sharma, Y., Manhas, R.K., dan Kumar, K. (2015). Traditional Phytoremedies for The Treatment of Menstrual Disorders in District Udhampur, J&K, India. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 160: 202–210

Bouzenna, H., Dhibi, S., Samout, N., Rjeibi, I., Talarmin, H., Elfeki, A., dkk. (2016). The Protective Effect of Citrus limon Essential Oil on Hepatotoxicity and Nephrotoxicity Induced by Aspirin in Rats. Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, 83: 1327–1334

Chaturvedi, D. dan Shrivastava Suhane, R.R.N. (2016). Basketful Benefit of Citrus limon. International Research Journal of Pharmacy, 7: 1–4

Cheong, M.-W., Loke, X.-Q., Liu, S.-Q., Pramudya, K., Curran, P., dan Yu, B. (2011). Characterization of Volatile Compounds and Aroma Profiles of Malaysian Pomelo Citrus grandis (L.) Osbeck) Blossom and Peel. Journal of Essential Oil Research, 23: 34–44

Clement, Y.N., Baksh-Comeau, Y.S., dan Seaforth, C.E. (2015). An Ethnobotanical Survey of Medicinal Plants in Trinidad. Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine, 11: 67

Conklin, C.M.J., Bechberger, J.F., MacFabe, D., Guthrie, N., Kurowska, E.M., dan Naus, C.C. (2007). Genistein and Quercetin Increase Connexin43 and Suppress Growth of Breast Cancer Cells. Carcinogenesis, 28: 93–100

Del Rı́o, J.A., Fuster, M.D., Gómez, P., Porras, I., Garcı́a-Lidón, A., dan Ortuño, A. (2004). Citrus limon: a Source of Flavonoids of Pharmaceutical Interest. Food Chemistry, 84: 457–461

Ewansiha, J.U., Garba, S.A., Galadima, M., Daniyan, S.Y., dan Busari, M.B. (2016). Therapeutic Potency of Citrus Limon (L) Burm. F. (Lemon) Peel Extract Against Some Disease Causing Microorganisms. International Journal of Research Studies in Biosciences, 4: 1

Gualdani, R., Cavalluzzi, M., Lentini, G., dan Habtemariam, S. (2016). The Chemistry and Pharmacology of Citrus Limonoids. Molecules, 21: 1530

Hafid Boudries, 2012. Pulp Antioxidant Activities, Mineral Contents and Juice Nutritional Properties of Algerian Clementine Cultivars and Mandarin. African Journal Of Biotechnology, 11: 1

Harfouch, RM; Janoudi, H; Muhammad, W; Hammami, A; Chouman, F. (2019). In Vitro Antibacterial Activity of Citrus limon Peel Extracts against Several Bacterial Strains. Journal of Chemical and Pharmaceutical Research; 11(7): 48-51

Himed, L., Merniz, S., Monteagudo-Olivan, R., Barkat, M., dan Coronas, J. (2019). Antioxidant Activity of The Essential Oil of Citrus limon Before and After Its Encapsulation in Amorphous SiO2. Scientific African, 6: e00181

Ju, S., Mu, J., Dokland, T., Zhuang, X., Wang, Q., Jiang, H., dkk. (2013). Grape Exosome-like Nanoparticles Induce Intestinal Stem Cells and Protect Mice From DSS-Induced Colitis. Molecular Therapy, 21: 1345–1357

Kamal, G.M., *Anwar, F., Hussain, A.I., Sarri, N., dan Ashraf, M.Y. (2011). Yield and Chemical Composition of Citrus Essential Oils as Affected by Drying Pretreatment of Peels. International Food Research Journal, 18: 1

Kanmani, P. (2014). Extraction and Analysis of Pectin from Citrus Peels: Augmenting The Yield from Citrus limon Using Statistical Experimental Design. Iranica Journal of energy and environment, 5: 1

Kaya, M., Sousa, A.G., Crépeau, M.-J., Sørensen, S.O., dan Ralet, M.-C. (2014). Characterization of Citrus Pectin Samples Extracted Under Different Conditions: Influence of Acid Type and pH of Extraction. Annals of Botany, 114: 1319–1326

Kim, J., Jayaprakasha, G.K., Uckoo, R.M., dan Patil, B.S. (2012). Evaluation of Chemopreventive and Cytotoxic Effect of Lemon Seed Extracts on Human Breast Cancer (MCF-7) Cells. Food and Chemical Toxicology, 50: 423–430

Klimek-Szczykutowicz, Szopa, dan Ekiert. (2020). Citrus limon (Lemon) Phenomenon—A Review of the Chemistry, Pharmacological Properties, Applications in the Modern Pharmaceutical, Food, and Cosmetics Industries, and Biotechnological Studies. Plants, 9: 119

Liu, Y., Zhang, X., Wang, Y., Chen, F., Yu, Z., Wang, L., dkk. (2014). Erratum to: Effect of Citrus lemon Oil on Growth and Adherence of Streptococcus Mutans. World Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology, 30: 1435–1435

Lota, M.-L., de Rocca Serra, D., Tomi, F., Jacquemond, C., dan Casanova, J. (2002). Volatile Components of Peel and Leaf Oils of Lemon and Lime Species. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 50: 796–805

Mahmoud, M.F., Gamal, S., dan El-Fayoumi, H.M. (2014). Limonin Attenuates Hepatocellular Injury Following Liver Ischemia and Reperfusion in Rats Via Toll-like Receptor Dependent Pathway. European Journal of Pharmacology, 740: 676–682

Makni, M., Jemai, R., Kriaa, W., Chtourou, Y., dan Fetoui, H. (2018). Citrus limon from Tunisia: Phytochemical and Physicochemical Properties and Biological Activities. BioMed Research International, 2018: 1–10

Malacrida, C.R., Kimura, M., dan Jorge, N. (2012). Phytochemicals and Antioxidant Activity of Citrus Seed Oils. Food Science and Technology Research, 18: 399–404

Manca, M.L., Castangia, I., Zaru, M., Nácher, A., Valenti, D., Fernàndez-Busquets, X., dkk. (2015). Development of Curcumin Loaded Sodium hyaluronate Immobilized Vesicles (Hyalurosomes) and Their Potential on Skin Inflammation and Wound Restoring. Biomaterials, 71: 100–109

Manconi, M., Manca, M.L., Marongiu, F., Caddeo, C., Castangia, I., Petretto, G.L., dkk., (2016). Chemical Characterization of Citrus limon var. Pompia and Incorporation in Phospholipid Vesicles for Skin Delivery. International Journal of Pharmaceutics, 506: 449–457

Martí, N., Mena, P., Cánovas, J.A., Micol, V., dan Saura, D. (2009). Vitamin C and The Role of Citrus Juices as Functional Food. Natural Product Communications, 4: 1934578X0900400

Mary, O.B., Ijah, U.J.J., Yisa, J., dan Abioye, O.P. (2019). Phytochemicals and Phyto-disinfectant Properties of Citrus species (Citrus limon, Citrus aurantifolia and Citrus sinensis) for Pond Water Purification. GSC Biological and Pharmaceutical Sciences, 8: 034–044

Mathew, B.B., Jatawa, S.K., dan Tiwari, A. (2012). Phytochemical Analysis of Citrus limonum Pulp and Peel. International Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, 4: 4

Matsumoto, T., Koike, M., Arai, C., Kitagawa, T., Inoue, E., Imahori, D., dkk. (2018). Chemical Structures and Antimutagenic Effects of Unusual Oximes from The Peels of Citrus limon. Phytochemistry Letters, 25: 118–121

Minami, M., Kita, M., Nakaya, T., Yamamoto, T., Kuriyama, H., dan Imanishi, J. (2003). The Inhibitory Effect of Essential Oils on Herpes Simplex Virus Type-1 Replication In Vitro. Microbiology and Immunology, 47: 681–684

Mustafa, N. (2015). Citrus Essential Oils: Current and Prospective Uses in the Food Industry. Recent Patents on Food, Nutrition & Agriculture, 7: 115–127

Nascimento, G.G.F., Locatelli, J., Freitas, P.C., dan Silva, G.L. (2000). Antibacterial Activity of Plant Extracts and Phytochemicals on Antibiotic-Resistant Bacteria. Brazilian Journal of Microbiology, 31

Ooi, L.L., Zhou, H., Kalak, R., Zheng, Y., Conigrave, A.D., Seibel, M.J., dkk. (2010). Vitamin D Deficiency Promotes Human Breast Cancer Growth in a Murine Model of Bone Metastasis. Cancer Research, 70: 1835–1844.

Ortuño, A., Báidez, A., Gómez, P., Arcas, M.C., Porras, I., García-Lidón, A., dkk. (2006). Citrus paradisi and Citrus sinensis Flavonoids: Their Influence in The Defence Mechanism Against Penicillium digitatum. Food Chemistry, 98: 351–358

Otang, W.M. dan Afolayan, A.J. (2016). Antimicrobial and Antioxidant Efficacy of Citrus limon L. peel Extracts Used for Skin Diseases by Xhosa tribe of Amathole District, Eastern Cape, South Africa. South African Journal of Botany, 102: 46–49

Owolab, M.S., Avoseh, O.N., dan Ogunwande, I.A. (2018). Chemical Composition of Citrus limon (L.) Osbeck Growing in Southwestern Nigeria: Essential Oil Chemo Types of Both Peel and Leaf of Lemon. American Journal of Essential Oils and Natural Products, 6

Palazzolo, D.L. (2013). Electronic Cigarettes and Vaping: A New Challenge in Clinical Medicine and Public Health. A Literature Review. Frontiers in Public Health, 1

Papp, N., Bartha, S., Boris, G., dan Balogh, L. (2011). Traditional Uses of Medicinal Plants for Respiratory Diseases in Transylvania. Natural Product Communications, 6: 1934578X1100601.

Pellizzeri, V., Costa, R., Grasso, E., dan Dugo, G. (2020). Valuable Products from The Flowers of Lemon (Citrus limon (L.) Osbeck) and Grapefruit (Citrus paradisi Macfad.) Italian Trees. Food and Bioproducts Processing, 123: 123–133

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DOI: https://doi.org/10.36729/jam.v7i2.851

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